Every roof consists of several basic elements: roof structure (with substructures), roof cover, an insulation layer, finishing elements, and applications. Additional materials that are used for waterproofing, moisture regulation, thermal insulation or interior coating in cases where space is directly under the roof are not decisive for determining the roof topology according to the construction material or the covering.
The construction carries a roof cover and transfers loads to the lower parts of the building. Like walls, roof construction can be massive (vaults and dome roofs, straw bales, earth or ceilings made of reinforced concrete) or made of linear elements (wooden, metal or concrete gratings, frames, classic or laminated wooden roof constructions, etc). The grid consists of supporting elements which need to transfer the load of the cover (insulation, protective layer) to the construction. The grid must not be of the same material as the roof structure (eg on concrete beams some metal profiles can be applied to the substructure). Some modern systems for covering objects do not require a substructure.
Roof cover is a part of the roof that directly protects the roof structure and the entire building from external influences. It has been proven that the role of roof covering facilities around the world has a huge impact on global warming. Today, it is becoming more and more common that materials that absorb and create heat, are not recommended and are prohibited, and they are known as hot islands (urban areas that are warmer than the surrounding environment for several degrees). Here we are firstly thinking of asphalt or black-insulated roofs that have far higher absorption power than concrete or tin roofs.
The roof insulation layer is a thermal and waterproofing system. It can be placed in, above or below the roof structure. They are very important in order to prevent leaking, temperature loss, and other problems you could have with your roof and that will transfer to your walls and other parts of your house.
The final elements of the deck are numerous details that involve the fitting of the roof and other parts of the structure and system of the building such as strong wind defense to cover from damage, guttering, ice retention, and so on. These elements are made of high-quality materials resistant to UV radiation and temperature differences, stainless steel sheets or special requirements, such as for example, copper sheet.