Every roof consists of several basic elements: roof structure (with substructures), roof cover, an insulation layer, finishing elements, and applications. Additional materials that are used for waterproofing, moisture regulation, thermal insulation or interior coating in cases where space is directly under the roof are not decisive for determining the roof topology according to the construction material or the covering.
The construction carries a roof cover and transfers loads to the lower parts of the building. Like walls, roof construction can be massive (vaults and dome roofs, straw bales, earth or ceilings made of reinforced concrete) or made of linear elements (wooden, metal or concrete gratings, frames, classic or laminated wooden roof constructions, etc). The grid consists of supporting elements which need to transfer the load of the cover (insulation, protective layer) to the construction. The grid must not be of the same material as the roof structure (eg on concrete beams some metal profiles can be applied to the substructure). Some modern systems for covering objects do not require a substructure.
Roof cover is a part of the roof that directly protects the roof structure and the entire building from external influences. It has been proven that the role of roof covering facilities around the world has a huge impact on global warming. Today, it is becoming more and more common that materials that absorb and create heat, are not recommended and are prohibited, and they are known as hot islands (urban areas that are warmer than the surrounding environment for several degrees). Here we are firstly thinking of asphalt or black-insulated roofs that have far higher absorption power than concrete or tin roofs.
The roof insulation layer is a thermal and waterproofing system. It can be placed in, above or below the roof structure. They are very important in order to prevent leaking, temperature loss, and other problems you could have with your roof and that will transfer to your walls and other parts of your house.
The final elements of the deck are numerous details that involve the fitting of the roof and other parts of the structure and system of the building such as strong wind defense to cover from damage, guttering, ice retention, and so on. These elements are made of high-quality materials resistant to UV radiation and temperature differences, stainless steel sheets or special requirements, such as for example, copper sheet.
There are houses without foundation and without walls, but houses without a roof – no. The basic role of human habitats was and remained – a roof over your head. It is sometimes difficult to separate the roof structure from the roof covering, the construction of the roof from the construction of the entire building, or clearly indicate where the construction of the building becomes the roof, where the façade ends and the roof cover begins.
The basic division of roofs is according to the number of roof levels, so we have one-way, two-way, etc. (today, most common architecture is four-conductive roofs over a rectangular or square foundation, probably you have the very same roof). A special case is the shape of a dome or coupe as a possible roof deck over a circular base.
There is also a dormitory roof, with a broken roof level to get extra space in the attic. The angle of the roof can be over 75 °, and each tile must be bonded individually. These roofs were named after their creator, Parisian architect François Mansart (François Mansart, 1598-1666)
In recent years, architects have also applied arch roofs that provide sufficient drop and full utilization of the building’s overall dimensions for as many square meters of usable space as possible. However, this solution should be taken into account, especially in urban cores and larger buildings.
Roofs can also be divided into shapes – on flat and sloping pieces, upholstery or dome. The sloping roofs generally have a slope of 30-60 °, especially if the roof cover is a tile. Under flat roofs, we mean low-tilt roofs, from 3 to 10 percent
Very often the same constructive solutions can be applied to the construction of flat and sloping roofs or the same constructive solutions that apply to the floor ceilings. Flat roofs are divided into both passable and impenetrable, depending on whether the roof surface will be used or not. Passage roofs can be used as parking spaces, terraces, gardens, etc…
Trough the history people used wood, brickwork, and stone for their roof structures. From ancient to modern times, little has changed in the construction and materials for the manufacture of roofs that can withstand hurricanes. Today we can divide the vast majority of roof structures according to the material in three types – wooden; metal or steel; and concrete.